Session 25






Language notes

In this section we will review the use of the word 'yn', identifying sentence patterns where it is required and some sentence patterns where it is not required.

'yn' is really two different words in Welsh.  The first is a preposition with the meaning 'in', for example:
         Mae'r car yng ngarej John yn Stryd y Castell.
               The car is in John's garage in Castle Street.
         Mae'r cyngerdd ym mis Mai yng Nghaerdydd.
               The concert is in May in Cardiff.
         Mae'r gwesty yng Ngwynedd yng Ngogledd Cymru.
               The hotel is in Gwynedd in North Wales.

Note that the word following yn takes a treiglad trwynol where possible.  The word yn may itself be modified, for example: to ym or yng

When yn represents the preposition 'in', it cannot be shortened or abreviated.  
For example, the two sentences below have quite different meanings:
             Mae hi yn siop y pentref.            She is in the village shop.
             Mae hi'n siop y pentref.              It is the village shop.

The second use of 'yn' in Welsh is as a grammatical marker, described as 'traethiadol'.  
When 'yn' is used in this way, it has no translatable meaning in the sentence.

'yn' is a component of most long form 'cwmpasog' tenses made by combining the verb 'bod' with a verb noun. For example:  
Present tense
          Rydw i'n cerdded i'r coleg heddiw.
          I am walking to the college today.
Imperfect tense
          Roedden nhw'n bwyta cinio pan gyrhaeddon ni.
          They were eating lunch when we arrived.
Future tense
           Byddwch chi'n mwynhau'r gm ar y penwythnos.
           You will enjoy the game at the weekend.
Conditional
           Bydden nhw'n mynd am dro pan fyddai'r tywydd yn braf.
           They would go for walks when the weather was fine.
Past
           Bues i'n siarad ag yr heddlu ynglŷn 'r ddamwain. 
           I spoke to the police about the accident.

yn is abreviated to 'n after a vowel.  Verb nouns never mutate after yn.

However, yn is not used in long form 'cwmpasog' tenses which include wedi:
Perfect tense
            Rydyn ni wedi darllen eich adroddiad.
            We have read your report.         
Pluperfect tense
            Roedden nhw wedi cerdded o amgylch y dref cyn cael cinio.
            They had walked around the town before having lunch.




A tense of 'bod' may stand on its own without an accompanying verb noun, for example when followed by a noun or adjective:
                            My friend is a doctor.
                            The children were happy.
In these cases, the bod tense is again followed by 'yn'.

Adjectives mutate after yn except when beginning with 'rh' or 'll'. For example:
    Roedden ni'n gyffrous ac yn bryderus pan aethon ni ar y roller coaster.
    We were excited and anxious when we went on the roller coaster.
                                                                                          (cyffrous, pryderus)
     Mae'r dillad yn y siop yn rhad.
              The clothes in the shop are cheap.
     Bydd y prosiect yn llwyddiannus.
              The project will be successful.

Nouns mutate after yn except when beginning with 'rh' or 'll'. For example:
      Mae'n feddyg ac yn llawfeddyg.
             He is a doctor and surgeon.                                      (meddyg)
      Roedd y cystadleuwyr yn rhedwyr ac yn feicwyr
              The competitors were runners and cyclists.             (beicwyr)

The bod tense may be in an inserted clause which refers back to the subject of the sentence. The subject in this example is 'y tŷ', and is represented by the pronoun 'ei':  
      Y tŷ y mae John yn ei brynu ydy yn y pentref.
              The house that John is buying is in the village.

'yn' is added before the pronoun. 
It is possible to omit the pronoun representing the subject, which is present mainly for emphasis. However, yn would still be retained:  
      Y tŷ y mae John yn prynu ydy yn y pentref.
              The house John is buying is in the village.

Other examples are:  
     Mae'r gt yr oeddech chi'n ei gwisgo yn y lolfa.       
     Mae'r gt yr oeddech chi'n gwisgo yn y lolfa.
               The coat that you were wearing is in the lounge.
     Yr arholiad y byddan nhw'n ei sefyll bydd ym mis Mehefin.
     Yr arholiad y byddan nhw'n sefyll bydd ym mis Mehefin.
               The examination that they will sit will be in June.

The grammatical marker 'yn' is not inserted before prepositions. (This should not be confused with the preposition 'yn').  For example:
        Mae'r dref dros y mynydd yn y dyffryn.
                The town is over the mountain in the valley.

Other examples are:
        Roedd yr allweddi ar y bwrdd dan y ffenestr.
                 The keys were on the table under the window.
        Byddwn ni uwchben y cymylau mewn awyren.
                 We will be above the clouds in an aircraft.
         
'yn' is not used with the verb nouns eisiau and angen:
        Rydw i eisiau cerdded ar hyd y traeth.
                 I want to walk along the beach.
        Roedd angen iddyn nhw agor y ffenestri.
                 They needed to open the windows. 

'yn' is not used with the verb noun biau meaning 'to own'. 
Notice the alternative third person 'sy' form of the verb 'bod' is used with biau: 
        Mae'n ddyn busnes cyfoethog sy biau'r tŷ ar y clogwyn.
                 It is a rich businessman who owns the house on the cliff.

'yn' is not used with the adverb 'mor', meaning 'so':
       Mae Portmeirion mor anarferol gyda'i arddull Eidalaidd o adeiladau.
                 Portmeirion is so unusual with its Italian style of buildings.



Treigladau

In this section we continue the summary of situations in which a treiglad meddal (soft mutation) is used.

A treiglad meddal is required in various sentence patterns involving verbs:
 
treiglad meddal is applied after the particle Fe' (South Wales) or 'Mi (North Wales.
      Fe ddringodd y mynydd ac fe gyrhaeddodd y copa.
          He climbed the mountain and reached the summit.
                                                                            (dringodd, cyrhaeddodd)
     Mi redaf i sawl milltir bob bore yn yr haf.
          I run several miles every morning in the summer.                 (rhedaf)
                                                                                   
Negative cases of short form 'cryno' verbs take a mixed mutation: 
      treiglad llaes (aspirate mutation) is applied to verbs beginning with 
            the letters  c, p or t; 
      treiglad meddal is applied where possible for other initial letters.  
Examples are:   
       Theithiais i ddim i Gaerdydd ar fws.
              I did not travel to Cardiff by bus.                            (teithiais)
       Ni chyfarfu 'i ffrindiau yn y dafarn.
              He did not meet his friends in the pub.                   (cyfarfu)
       Wnaethoch chi ddim prynu tocyn i Dafydd.
             You didn't buy a ticket for Dafydd.                           (gwnaethoch)
       Gerddan nhw ddim o amgylch y llyn.
              They will not walk around the lake.                        (cerddan)

treiglad llaes (for letters  c, p or t) or treiglad meddal is also applied to negative responses to questions:
       A ganwch chi yn y cyngerdd? Na chanaf.
            Will you sing in the concert?  No, I will not sing.          
                                (canaf)
       Wnewch chi fynd 'r llythyr hwn i swyddfa'r post?  Na wnaf.
            Will you take this letter to the post office?  No, I will not. 
                                 (gwnaf)  
      
A treiglad meddal is applied to interrogative (question) cases of short form 'cryno' verbs.  For example:
        A goginiodd hi fwyd i'r ymwelwyr?
              Did she cook food for the visitors?                          (coginiodd)
        Brynaist ti unrhyw beth yn y siop honno?
              Did you buy anything in that shop?                         (prynaist)
         A ddaethon nhw 'r arian?
              Did they bring the money?                                      (daethon)

treiglad meddal is applied to the word immediately following a command.
        Agorwch ddrws a ffoniwch feddyg!
              Open a door and call a doctor!                               (drws, meddyg)  
        Pryna docyn a siarada Gymraeg
              Buy a ticket and speak Welsh!                               (tocyn, Cymraeg)       
The next set of occurrences of a treiglad meddal are related to sentence structure. They all follow the important rule:
           A treiglad meddal is applied where possible to the first word 
           following the subject of the sentence.

Simple sentences in Welsh follow the pattern VERB - SUBJECT - OBJECT
For example, using short form 'cryno' tenses:
       Atgyweiriodd y ffermwr dractor.
            The farmer repaired a tractor.                     subject:  y ffermwr 
                                                                                object:   tractor
       Pryniff y teulu yn y pentref.
           The family will buy a house in the village.    subject:  y teulu
                                                                                object:    tŷ 
  
With a long form 'cwmpasog' tense, the subject is often inserted between the verb 'bod' or 'gwneud' and a verb noun.  
For 'bod' tenses, the subject is generally followed by 'yn' which does not take a treiglad:
       Roedd Mr Jones yn golchi ei gar.    
            Mr Jones was washing his car.                  subject:  Mr Jones 
  
However, 'gwneud' tenses do not use 'yn'.  A treiglad meddal is applied to the verb noun following the subject:
       Gwnaeth y teulu yrru i'r arfordir.
             The family drove to the coast.                 subject:       y teulu  
                                                                             verb noun:   gyrru

The rule that a treiglad meddal immediately follows the subject can be applied to other sentence patterns:

The subject may be omitted, but a treiglad meddal is still applied. For example:
           Dringodd fynydd yn Eryri. 
                  He climbed a mountain in Snowdonia.       subject: [ef...] omitted
           Dalwn fws am naw o'r gloch.
                   We catch a bus at nine o'clock.                 subject: [ni...] omitted

The subject may be followed by a descriptive clause rather than a noun object, 
            Rhedodd hi drwy'r cae gwenith
                   She ran through the wheat field               subject:  hi   
                                                                                    preposition:  trwy

However, the descriptive clause often begins with the word 'yn' which does not take a treiglad:
            Dechreuon ni yn gynnar yn y bore
                   We began early in the morning                subject:  ni





In the interesting case of 'rhaid', the sentence has an assumed subject which is the person or persons who must carry out the action.  This assumed subject is then followed immediately by a treiglad meddal.  For example:
          Rhaid i'r myfyrwyr gwblhau eu haseiniadau.
                  The students must complete their assignments.
                                                                   assumed subject:  y myfyrwyr   
          Roedd yn rhaid iddi hi dalu bil y gwesty.
                  She had to pay the hotel bill.      assumed subject:  hi

The treiglad meddal rule also applies to sentences using the short form verb hoffi ('to like'), where the subject is followed immediately by a verb noun. 
          Hoffwn i fynd i'r sinema heno.
                 I would like to go to the cinema tonight.        subject:  i
                                                                                   verb noun:  mynd
          Hoffan nhw adael ar l y pryd o fwyd.
                 They would like to leave after the meal.       subject:  nhw
                                                                                   verb noun: gadael    

The treiglad meddal rule is applied to sentences using the dylwn (I should...) pattern. The verb noun following the subject receives the treiglad:
          Dylwn i ofyn am help gyda'r prosiect.   
                 I should ask for help with the project.          subject:  i
                                                                                 verb noun:  gofyn
          Dylech gerdded i lawr i'r harbwr.       
                 You should walk down to the harbour.       subject: [chi..] omitted
                                                                                 verb noun:  cerdded

The sentence pattern 'mae yna...'  (there is...) is used to indicate that a person or object is present.  'yna' is the subject, so the following word takes a treiglad meddal:
          Mae yna dorfeydd o bobl ar y traeth a'r promend.
                 There are crowds of people on the beach and promenade.
                                                                                                      (torfeydd)
          Roedd yna lawer o ffatroedd yn yr hen ddyddiau. 
                 There were a lot of factories in the old days.                (llawer)

Another way of indicating a person or object is present is to use dyma, dyna or dacw ('here is...', 'there is...', 'over there is...').  These expressions are actually contractions which combine a verb and subject.  A treiglad meddal is therefore applied to the word which immediately follows:
         Dyma orsaf y rheilffordd a dyna lwybr i ganol y dref.
               Here is the railway station and there is a path to the town center.
                                                                                            (gorsaf, llwybr)

A treiglad meddal is used in several sentence patterns involving expressions of time.  A treiglad is applied to days of the week where the meaning is 'on a particular day':
   Byddwn yn mynd i Lundain ddydd Llun ac yn dod yn l ddydd Gwener.
             We will go to London on Monday and come back on Friday.       
                                                (dydd)

A treiglad meddal is also applied for time clauses indicating when an action occurs.
     Cwblhaodd ei gwrs hyfforddi ddeng mlynedd yn l.
               He completed his training course ten years ago.           (deng)

The behaviour of the word 'gan' ('with..') is interesting.  'gan' causes a treiglad meddal in the normal way when it is used as a simple preposition:
      Ysgrifennwyd y ddrama gan fyfyrwyr yn y coleg.
                The play was written by students in the college.         (myfyrwyr)

However, 'gan' can also be used in sentence patterns to indicate the possessor of some property or object.  In this case, a treiglad meddal is also applied to the object posessed:
       Mae gan fyfyrwyr y brifysgol ddosbarthiadau bob dydd.
                 The university students have classes evey day.
                                                                           (myfyrwyr, dosbarthiadau)
       Mae gan deulu Jane Jones ger yr afon.
                 The family of Jane Jones have a house near the river.                                                                                                                                 (teulu, tŷ)
    
A treiglad meddal is applied in several situations involving comparisons.  
A treiglad follows the words 'cyn' and 'mor' when used with the meaning 'as...':

     Nid yw'r llwybr hwn i fyny'r mynydd mor beryglus 'r llwybr hwnnw.
                This route up the mountain is not as dangerous as that route.
                                                                                                     (peryglus)
      Dydy'r caffi ddim cyn ddrud 'r bwyty.
                 The cafe is not as expensive as the restaurant.          (drud)
      Mae'r gegin mor boeth 'r anialwch.
                 The kitchen is as hot as the desert.                             (poeth)

A treiglad meddal is applied after yn when this is used in a comparison expression:
      Bydd yr adeilad newydd yn dalach na Thŵr Eiffel.
                The new building will be taller than the Eiffel Tower.    (talach)

treiglad meddal is applied to an adjective after 'y' when this indicates a superlative for a feminine noun. This does not apply for masculine nouns.

       Y llyfrgell yw'r fwyaf yng Nghymru.
               The library is the largest in Wales.                                 (mwyaf)
       Y gwesty yw'r mwyaf yng Nghymru.
                The hotel is the largest in Wales.         



Idioms

In this section we will review a selection of idioms which use the word 'yn':

yn achos:  in the case of
            Yn achos y bont droed, mae angen atgyweiriadau brys.
            In the case of the foot bridge, urgent repairs are needed.

yn ei anterth: at its peak
            Roedd chwarela llechi yn ei anterth yn yr 1880au.
            Slate quarrying was at its peak in the 1880's. 

yn ei gefn:  behind his back
            Prynodd ddodrefn newydd yn ei gefn.
            She bought new furniture behind his back.

yn ei gwaed: in her blood       
           Roedden ni'n gwybod y byddai fe'n Aelod Seneddol oherwydd bod                          gwleidyddiaeth yn ei waed.
           We knew he would be a Member of Parliament because politics 
                      was in his blood.

yn ei hunfan: motionless
          Safodd y lleidr yn ei hunfan pan ddaeth yr heddlu i mewn i'r tŷ.
          The burgler stood motionless when the police entered the house.

yn ei lle: in place of..
          Roedd Huw yn rhy brysur, felly es i yn ei le.
          Huw was too busy, so I went in his place.

yn l ac ymlaen:  back an forth
         Mae'r trenau yn mynd yn l ac ymlaen rhwng y pwll glo a'r dociau.
         The trains go back and forth between the coal mine and the docks.

yn l pob sn:  according to what people say
         Yn l pob sn, bydd tai newydd yn cael eu hadeiladu yn y pentref.
         According to what people say, new houses will be built in the village.

yn sgil:  following..., in the aftermath of...
         Bydd yn llawer o waith ailgychwyn y ffatri yn sgil y tn.
         It will be a lot of work to restart the factory follwing the fire.

yn y bn:  basically
         Mae'n cwyno ond yn y bn mae'n derbyn bod angen y rheolau.
         He complains but basically he accepts that the rules are needed.

yn y fan a'r lle:  immediately, there and then 
         Ffoniodd a chyrhaeddodd y frigd dn yn y fan a'r lle.
         He phoned and the fire brigade arrived immediately.  

yn y pen draw:  eventually
         Yn y pen draw bydd yr hen eglwys ar y clogwyn yn cwympo i'r mr.
         Eventually the old church on the cliff will fall into the sea.

yn ymyl:  close by, next to
          Mae'r stadiwm chwaraeon yn ymyl yr orsaf reilffordd.
          The sports stadium is next to the railway station.         





yn can be used with a noun to represent the word 'as...', meaning 'actually as...' or 'exactly as...'.
The alternative Welsh word 'fel' is also translated 'as...', but has the slightly different meaning of 'similar to...' or 'like...'.  

yn ffrindiau:  as friends
      Rydyn ni wedi aros yn ffrindiau ers i ni fod yn yr ysgol gyda'n gilydd.
      We have remained as friends since we were at school together.

yn llanast:  as a mess
       Gadawodd y myfyrwyr yr ystafell yn llanast ar l y parti.
       The students left the room as a mess after the party. 

yn aelod:  as a member
       Rydw i wedi cael fy ethol yn aelod o'r pwyllgor.
       I have been elected as a member of the committee. 

yn anrheg: as a present
       Gwnaethon ni roi'r car iddo fe yn anrheg ar gyfer ei ben-blwydd.
       We gave him the car as a present for his birthday.

yn arbenigwr: as an expert, specialist
       Penodwyd y darlithydd yn arbenigwr mewn mathemateg.
       The lecturer was appointed as an expert in mathematics. 


'yn' can be used with a verb to represent 'into' in the sense of 'become..', 'change into...' or 'make into...'.  
The alternative Welsh phrase 'i mewn' can also be translated as 'into', but usually in the sense of 'moving into...' or 'travelling into...'.

yn pentwr: into a pile
     Gwnaeth y coedwigwyr y boncyffion yn bentwr, yn barod i'w casglu.
     The foresters made the logs into a pile, ready to collect.

yn gwlwm:  into a knot
      Clymodd y rhaff yn gwlwm i ddal polyn y babell.
      He tied the rope into a knot to hold the tent pole.

yn ddarnau: into pieces
      Rhwygodd y tocyn yn ddarnau a gweiddi'n ddig wrth y warden traffig.
      He tore the ticket into pieces and shouted angrily at the traffic warden. 

yn gylch:  into a circle
      Roedd y madarch yn tyfu yn gylch ar y lawnt.
      The mushrooms were growing into a circle on the lawn.

yn deilchion:  into tiny fragments, smithereens
      Syrthiodd y jwg o'r ddresel a thorri'n deilchion.
      The jug fell from the dresser and broke into fragments.

yn grwpiau:  into groups
       Ffurfiodd y cystadleuwyr yn grwpiau ar gyfer y cwis.
       The competitors formed into groups for the quiz.




Farming in Wales


Agriculture has been a major part of the economy of Wales, which is largely a rural country.
With the coming of the coal, iron and slate industries, agriculture become less important as people moved to the towns and cities.
However, the employment generated by farming is significant in rural Wales.
Welsh farmers are protectors of Welsh culture, heritage and language.
Farms in Wales tend to be small and operated as family businesses.
The foremost role of the farmer is as a food producer, supporting the nationally important food industry.
Only a small proportion of the flatter land area is suitable for growing crops.
Crops grown in Wales include wheat and barley, with new potatoes from the Gower peninsula and Pembrokeshire available early in the season.
Wales has a mild, wet climate producing large areas of grassland suitable for grazing for dairying and livestock.
Dairying takes place on better pasture in lowland areas.
Herds are milked by machine in modern parlours.
The milk passes by pipeline to the cooler and is stored in a refrigerated bulk tank and collected by milk tanker daily.
Organic farming is becoming increasingly important, with the production of Welsh organic milk, organic cheeses and yoghurts.
Beef cattle and sheep are kept on the uplands and more marginal land.
Most cattle are now housed in winter with their main feed being silage.
The cattle can graze the open hillside in summer.
The trampling of their hooves helps control bracken and they feed on a wide range of vegetation, including the coarse grasses that sheep cannot eat.
Welsh Black cattle are the traditional breed of Wales.
These hardy cows with horns and shaggy coats are able to thrive on poor quality pasture and moorland and can be used to provide both milk and beef.
Much of the higher land is used for sheep grazing, and the hardy Welsh Mountain sheep are allowed to roam free.
The sheep know where to graze at different times of year and where to shelter.
The sheep are gathered once or twice a year.
In rural areas, sheep are still an important part of life with local livestock shows and sheep dog trials taking place annually.
However, farm incomes from food production have fallen over the years.
Tourism has now become an important source of farm income in the countryside and along the coast.
There has been a decline in the number of people employed on the land, and old farmhouses have been converted into self-catering accommodation.
Other sources of income include small hydro electric schemes, and wind farm developments.
Changes in farming practices have affected wildlife in Wales.
The Welsh government has introduced subsidy schemes to encourage the farmers to manage their land in an environmentally sustainable way.
Schemes have encouraged the creation of ponds and wetlands, the planting of woodland and the preservation of hedgerows, and improving water management to avoid flooding.

Translate the sentence:

Agriculture has been a major part of the economy of Wales, which is largely a rural country.



Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)









Story

The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.



Vocabulary





In the early hours of the morning, a burgler broke into John`s house.
The burgler went up the stairs, but the sound woke John.
John saw the burgler and grabbed the nearest thing to defend himself, which was a cricket bat.
The burgler pulled out a knife and came towards John in a threatening way.
John hit him over the head and the burgler fell down the stairs.
Thinking that the burgler was dead, and not wanting any trouble with the police, John put the body into his car.
He drove to the large river nearby and threw the body into the water.
The shock of the cold water caused the burgler to regain consciousness and he started to swim.
At that moment, a motor boat came down the river, carrying a group of passengers who are having a noisy party.
The boat captain was drunk and did not see the person in the water, although the river was brightly lit by street lights along the bank.
The boat ran over the burgler, and his leg was badly injured by the propellor.
The boat did not stop, but he managed to get to the bank.
Huw, who had been walking along the river bank, saw the whole sequence of events and filmed everything on his mobile phone.
He called the emergency services without giving his name, then went home and displayed the film on his social media account.
This was shared thousands of times.
The next day, the police picked up everyone involved and took them to the police station for questionning.
The burgler was under guard in the hospital.
The inspector in charge of the case spent hours reading through the reports.
"This will be one of my more memorable cases" he thought to himself.

Translate the sentence:

In the early hours of the morning, a burgler broke into John`s house.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)










Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:








Use of Welsh

Regenerating town centres


In recent years, concern has been growing about the closure of shops and other services in town centres across Britain, and the general economic decline of town centres as places to work, shop and spend leisure time.  The situation has been made worse by the COVID pandemic.

A series of seminars are being arranged with local community and business leaders in Wales. The objective is to collect information about the problems facing town centres and the ways in which town centres can be regenerated. 
It is hoped to collect a series of examples and case studies of successful town centre regeneration projects.



Alongside is shown the text of the introductory presentation which explains the objectives of the seminar and outlines the topics which will be discussed.
You are invited to translate this into Welsh so that the presentation can be delivered bilingually.




Vocabulary




Welcome to this discussion about the difficulties facing town centres. During the sessions, we would like to hear case studies of problems facing your towns, and success stories about improving your high streets. We hope to compile a report giving ideas and advice for business and community leaders on town centre regeneration.

We are all aware of the decline of many high streets. The number of empty shops is increasing, with some large well-known stores now closed. The number of charity shops and betting shops has increased, whilst banks and other services such as post offices have closed. Some town centres are no longer attractive to visitors, and shoppers go instead to out-of-town shopping centres.

We would like you to consider a number of questions:

 * What use can be made of shop buildings which are currently empty?
 * Would retail businesses be attracted to these buildings if rents and 
    council tax were reduced?
 *  Would a change of use for empty shop buildings be the best solution, 
    for example: making them into residential flats or small craft workshops?
 *  Would it be an advantage or disadvantage to create more pedestrian areas,
     with shopping streets closed to vehicles?
 *  Can cafes and restaurants benefit from outside dining areas being created
     with tables and chairs allowed on the pavement?
 *  Is car parking around town centres adequate, convenient for the shops 
     and affordable?
 *  Is access to the town centre by public transport adequate, or should 
    bus routes or the frequency of services be changed?
 *  Is the standard of maintenance and cleanliness of town centre streets
    satisfactory, or is further work needed by local councils?
 *  Can the town centre environment be made more attractive, for example: 
     by providing more areas of grass and plants, or providing more seating?
 *  Can visitor numbers be increased by locating more public facilities in 
     town centres, such as doctors' surgeries and leisure centres?
 *  Are the town centres safe places to visit, particularly after dark?
 *  Should more security staff be present, and should the coverage by 
     closed circuit television be improved?  
 *  Could more educational facilities be situated in town centres, such as
     vocational training centres and Welsh language centres?
 *  Could special events be arranged in town centres to attract visitors, 
     such as outdoor music festivals?

Translate the sentence:

Welcome to this discussion about the difficulties facing town centres.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)








Description


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:








Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

Where is Ynys Enlli, and who owns it?


When can people visit the island, and is it possible for visitors to stay for more than one day?


What tasks might volunteers be asked to carry out?


What personal qualities and skills are required or desirable for volunteers?


What must volunteers provide when they are staying on the island?


How do volunteers arrange to reach the island?




Volunteering to work on Ynys Enlli

Saif Ynys Enlli oddi ar ben draw penrhyn Llŷn ac maen lle pwysig o ran byd natur, hanes, archeoleg, treftadaeth ac ysbrydoliaeth. Perchennog yr ynys yw Ymddiriedolaeth Ynys Enlli a hwy syn ei rheoli ac yn ei chynnal, yn cynnwys yr adeiladau rhestredig Gradd II. Mae naw or rhain ar hyn o bryd yn cael eu gosod i ymwelwyr. Os ywr tywydd yn braf, maer ynys yn agored i ymwelwyr drwy gydol y gwanwyn, yr haf ar hydref.

Rydym yn awyddus i ddod o hyd i wirfoddolwyr a hoffai dreulio lleiafswm o wythnos yn Enlli i helpu gydag ystod o brojectau a gwaith cynnal a chadw.
Gwaith:
Helpu i gynnal, glanhau a rheolir llety a chyfleusterau ymwelwyr
Peintio, addurno
Tasgau cynnal a chadw cyffredinol ar yr ynys (clirio llwybrau, cynnal a chadwr adeiladau, codi cloddiau cerrig sych, garddio ayyb).
Cynorthwyor Wardeniaid gyda gwaith arall fel bo angen
Cynorthwyo gyda llwytho a dadlwytho bagiau a bocsys ymwelwyr or cwch
Cynnal arolygon ymwelwyr
Cynorthwyo ymwelwyr yn ystod eu gwyliau.

Dylair ymgeisydd llwyddiannus fod yn berchen ar y profiad/medrau/agwedd canlynol

Hanfodol
Natur benderfynol, yn fodlon gweithio ym mhob tywydd ac mewn lleoliadau anghysbell
Yn gorfforol ffit
Lefel uchel o gymhelliant, yn fodlon gweithion annibynnol ac fel un o dm
Agwedd hyblyg

Dymunol
Brwdfrydedd tuag at fywyd gwyllt a chadwraeth dreftadaeth
Profiad mewn rheolaeth gwarchodfa/gwaith llaw sylfaenol
Profiad mewn medrau adeiladu, ee plastro, gwaith coed, toi.
Siarad Cymraeg

GWYBODAETH BWYSIG

Llety
Darperir llety ar yr ynys, byddwch yn rhannu gyda gwirfoddolwyr eraill. Bydd yn ofynnol i ymgeiswyr llwyddiannus ddod chyfyr cwilt sengl, cynfas gwely a chesys gobennydd eu hunain. Darperir blancedi a gobennydd. Cyflenwir dillad amddiffynnol fel bo angen.

Bwyd
Disgwylir i ymgeiswyr llwyddiannus ddarparu eu bwyd eu hunain. Yn y gegin gymunedol mae oergell a chypyrddau a stf nwy ar gyfer coginio. Nid oes trydan yn y llety ond os oes angen llwytho unrhyw declyn gallwch wneud hyn yng nghartref y Wardeniaid.

Cwch/cludiant
Bydd yn ofynnol i chi dalu ffir cwch eich hunan. Byddwn ni yn gadael i Colin, perchennog y cwch, wybod eich bod yn dod, ac yn rhoi manylion sut i dalu i chi.

SUT I WNEUD CAIS
Llenwch y ffurflen gais os gwelwch yn dda. Does dim angen i chi anfon llythyr yn cyflwyno eich hun na CV fel rhan och cais.




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