Session 17






Language notes

In this section we will examine some of the ways in which quantities and sizes  are shown in Welsh using numbers.

Welsh has two ways of representing numbers, an older traditional system and a newer system.  For example:
                                      old                                      new
fifteen                       pymtheg                              un deg pump
seventeen                dau ar bymtheg                  un deg saith 
eighteen                   deunaw                               un deg wyth
twenty four               pedwar ar hugain               dau ddeg pedwar

Times use the old system:
          pump ar hugain munud i chwech         twenty five to six
          ugain munud wedi saith                        twenty past seven             

Similarly, dates use the old numbering system:
          y pymthegfed o Ionawr                          the fifteenth of January
          y bedwaredd ar bymtheg o Fedi           the nineteenth of September
          y degfed ar hugain o Awst                    the thirtieth of August
          yr unfed ar ddeg ar hugain o Fai          the thirty first of May 

The old numbering system is also used for the numbering of centuries:
          the first century                   y ganrif gyntaf
          the twelfth century              y ddeuddegfed ganrif
          the nineteenth century        y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg

It is often more convenient to use the new numbering system when calculations are involved, for example with money:
         37.99              tri deg saith punt naw deg naw ceiniog

Periods of time may also be given using the new number system.
         tri deg chwech munud a phedwar deg pump eiliad
         thirty six minutes and forty five seconds                  






Distances may be given in either imperial or metric units:
          chwe troedfedd dwy fodfedd              six feet two inches
          tri metr chwe deg centimetr                three metres sixty centimetres

Weights may also be written using either system of units:
        deuddeg pwys chwe owns                  twelve pounds six ounces
        pedwar cilo a dau gant o gramau       four kilos and two hundred grams

Quantities may use either imperial or metric measures:
        pedwar galwyn a thri pheint               four gallons and three pints
        wyth pwynt chwe litr                           eight point six litres 

Fractions may be written in words:
        traean o bobl y pentref             
        a third of the people in the village
        pedwar deg wyth y cant o'r pleidleisiau
        forty eight percent of the votes

Measurements may be specified:
         mae'r mynydd yn dair mil troedfedd o uchder
         the mountain is three thousand feet high
         mae e'n chwe troedfedd o daldra
         he is six feet tall
         mae'r afon yn ugain troedfedd o led
         the river is twenty feet wide
         mae'r ardd yn ddau gant o fetrau o hyd
         the garden is two hundred metres long
         mae'r pren yn ddwy fodfedd o drwch
         the timber is two inches thick
         mae'r blwch yn pwyso tri chilo
         the box weighs three kilos 



Treigladau

In this section we will review the ways in which the use of numbers in sentences can affect the use of treigladau.

The numbers two, three and four have both masculine and feminine forms, used with masculine and feminine nouns respectively.  For example:
                          masculine                   feminine
two                     dau adeilad               dwy ysgol
three                   tri mynydd                tair afon         
four                     pedwar ci                  pedair cath

The number 'un' causes a treiglad meddal with a feminine noun:
                 un ci ac un gath             one dog and one cat
                 un mab ac un ferch       one son and one daughter
                 cath noun (f);   merch  noun (f);

Both dau and dwy cause a treiglad meddal with both masculine and feminine nouns:
                dau bentref a dwy ddinas     two villages and two cities
                pentref noun (m);   dinas  noun (f);

The masculine tri causes an aspirate mutation (treiglad llaes):
                tri phentref, tair tref           three villages, three towns

When the number six (chwech) appears immediately before  a noun, it is shortened to chwe and an aspirate mutation is applied to the noun:
             chwe thref a chwe phentref     six towns and six villages
but
             chwech o bentrefi a chwech o ddinasoedd    




The ordinal number cyntaf ('first') takes a treiglad meddal when it follows a feminine noun:
        y wers gyntaf ar y diwrnod cyntaf   the first lesson on the first day
                  gwers noun (f);   diwrnod  noun (m);   

The ordinal number ail ('second') causes a soft mutation in both masculine and feminine nouns:
        yr ail wers ar yr ail ddiwrnod     the second lesson on the second day 

Other ordinal numbers cause a treiglad meddal only for feminine nouns:
    y seithfed ddinas, y seithfed pentref    the seventh city, the seventh village

The ordinal numbers may be used on their own without a following noun, for example: 'the sixth', 'the tenth'.  In this case, a treiglad meddal is applied if the number applies to a feminine person or object:
            Y ferch oedd y ddegfed i ymuno 'r clwb.      
            The girl was the tenth to join the club.
but       
             Y bachgen oedd y degfed i ymuno 'r clwb.
             The boy was the tenth to join the club.

When units of measurement follow the numbers two, three and four, the masculine or femine form is used depending on the gender of the unit:  
    tri munud, tair awr, tri diwrnod, tair wythnos, tri mis, tair blynedd
             munud noun (m);  awr  noun (f);  diwrnod noun (m);
             wythnos noun (f);  mis  noun (m);  blynedd  noun (f);
    tair punt pedair ceiniog               punt  noun (f) ;  ceiniog  noun (f);  
    tair troedfedd pedair modfedd    troedfedd  noun (f) ;  modfedd  noun (f); 
 but
    tri metr pedwar centimetr            metr  noun (m) ;  centimetr  noun (m);



Idioms

The word 'gan' or 'gen' is generally equivalent to the English word 'with'.  It is used in various situations:

indicating a posession
        Mae gen i gar cyflym.                          I have a fast car.
        Roedd gan y dref lawer o siopau.      The town had many shops.

denoting the person responsible for providing something
     Darllenais erthygl gan feddyg.                I read an article by a doctor.
     Canodd y cr gerddoriaeth gan Bach.   The choir sang music by Bach.

to specify a feeling or emotion
        Mae'n flin gen i glywed am y ddamwain.
        I'm sorry to hear about the accident.
        Roedd yn dda gen i enill y gystadleuaeth.
        I was delighted to win the competition.
        Byddai'n rhyfedd gen i pe taswn gytuno efo'r gwleidydd.
        I would be surprised if I agreed with the politician.
        Mae ganddo fe gywilydd am gymryd rhan yn yr ymosodiad.
        He is ashamed of taking part in the attack.

'gan' appears in various idioms:
gan amlaf  - usually
       Maen nhw'n cwrdd yn y parc gan amlaf.
       They usually meet in the park.






gan bwyll - carefully
        Gan bwyll, mae'r llwybr i fyny'r mynydd yn serth.
        Careful, the path up the mountain is steep. 

gan mwyaf -  mostly
        Mae'r teulu yn prynu bwyd yn yr archfarchnad gan mwyaf.
        The family mainly buys food in the supermarket.

waeth gen i  - I don't care
         Waeth gen i ba ddydd byddwn ni'n mynd i Gaerdydd.  
         I don't care what day we go to Cardiff.
          
gan feddwl - thinking about it
         Gan feddwl, efallai y dylen ni aros amdano fe.
         Thinking about it, maybe we should wait for him.

gan gynnwys - including
         Dewisodd gwyliau gan gynnwys teithio ac wythnos mewn gwesty.
         He chose a holiday including travel and a week in a hotel.

gan wenu - smiling
         Gwnaeth e gerdded i lawr y stryd gan wenu.
         He walked down the street smiling.




Lifeboat rescue


The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) was formed in 1824.
There are currently thirty lifeboat stations in Wales.
The history of the RNLI in Wales is long and remarkable.
The most dramatic rescues have involved ships in difficulty around the Welsh coast.
One of the most difficult rescues involved the Criccieth lifeboat which was called out to help the sailing ship Spanker in 1885.
The ship was travelling from Jamaica to Liverpool and struck the coast off Morfa Harlech.
It was a dark and stormy night.
The lifeboat went out to the wreck, powered by 10 men with oars.
The wreck was in total darkness and the lifeboat had to wait at sea until dawn.
The ship had now broken in two but seven men were seen clinging to the remains of the rigging.
These men were rescued, the lifeboat returned to shore and the rescued men were looked after by the people of Criccieth.
In 1890, 27 passengers and crew were rescued from the ship Loch Shiel by the Angle lifeboat.
It was impossible for the lifeboat to get alongside the ship which had run onto rocks below the cliff.
Crew members were put ashore and climbed along the cliff to the Loch Shiel, to pass a line to the ship.
The greatest disaster for the lifeboat service in Wales was the loss of the Mumbles lifeboat and its crew in 1947.
The lifeboat was launched to help the cargo ship Samtampa.
The ship had lost power during a storm and was washed onto the shore, where it broke into three sections.
It is believed that the lifeboat came close to collect survivors, when a huge wave hit the ship and it rolled over on top of the lifeboat.
In 1963, the Rhyl lifeboat rescued a hovercraft.
The hovercraft was being tested at sea when it got into difficulties.
In another unusual incident the Tenby lifeboat rescued the crew of a lightship in the Severn Estuary.
At the present day, helicopters can assist lifeboat crews during rescues.
RNLI lifeguards protect many of the popular beaches in Wales, and many rescues are by inshore lifeboat.
Rescues often involve pleasure boats and small fishing craft.
Inshore lifeboats are also called out to people trapped below cliffs by the tide or who have fallen from the cliff path.

Translate the sentence:

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) was formed in 1824.



Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)









Story

The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.



Vocabulary

mystery  dirgel  adjective;   victim  dioddefwr  noun (m);
stab  trywanu  verb;  clue  cliw  noun (m);
reveal  dadlennu,  datgelu  verb;  crime scene  lleoliad trosedd;
blackmail  blacmel  noun (m);  redirect  ailgyfeirio  verb;




John and Jane go on a murder mystery weekend in a country hotel.
The crime scene is set with two victims - a kitchen maid had been poisoned and the chauffeur had been stabbed.
They have to search the hotel and grounds for clues before the time runs out - and the plot is revealed.
They discover clues that the butler appears to be responsible.
This was because the two murdered staff members were going to speak to the master, Lord Pwllheli.
They would tell him that the butler had been stealing wine from the wine cellar and selling it.
According to the accounts, many bottles of wine were not accounted for.
Further investigations revealed, however, that this was a false trail planted by Lord Pwllheli.
In fact, the Lord had committed the crime himself.
The kitchen maid and chauffer were good friends and didn`t keep secrets from one another.
The kitchen maid had revealed to him that she was having a secret relationship with Lord Pwllheli.
Presents of jewellery and love letters were found hidden in the maid`s room.
A blackmail note written by the chauffer was found in Lord Pwllheli`s library.
The Lord had killed the two servants to avoid a scandal, then tried to redirect suspicion onto the butler.

Translate the sentence:

John and Jane go on a murder mystery weekend in a country hotel.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)










Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:








Use of Welsh

College course description


A further education college provides a course in Countryside Management.  An entry from the college prospectus is shown alongside.  You are invited to translate this into Welsh. 




Vocabulary

relevant  perthnasol  adjective;  agriculture  amaethyddiaeth  noun (f);
habitat  cynefin  noun (m);  conservation  cadwraeth  noun (f);
variety  amrywiaeth  noun (f);  apprenticeship  prentisiaeth  noun (f);
GCSE  TGAU  (Tystysgrif Gyffredinol Addysg Uwchradd);
alternatively  fel arall;  acre  erw noun (f);
assignment  aseiniad  noun (m);







Translate the sentence:

Countryside Management including Forestry.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)








Description


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:








Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

What was Islwyn Ffowc Ellis` purpose in writing the nofel `Wythnos yng Nghymru Fydd`?


How did Ifan Powell travel to Wales in 2033?


Did he find that the country was a good place to live?


What was Ifan`s reason for returning to the year 1956?


What had changed politically when Ifan made his second visit to Wales in 2033?


How had life changed for people living in the country?




`Wythnos yng Nghymru Fydd` gan Islwyn Ffowc Elis

Er ir nofel hon gael ei chyhoeddi gyntaf ym 1957, maen sicr yn stori syn cydio yn nychymyg y darllenydd or dechrau, a hynny hanner can mlynedd yn ddiweddarach. Maen amlwg wrth ddarllen y nofel heddiw mai nofel o bropaganda cenedlaetholgar y cyfnod yw hon, ac nid yw Islwyn Ffowc Elis yn ceisio cuddio hynny.

Heb ddatgelu gormod, stori am Ifan Powell yn neidio or flwyddyn 1956 ir flwyddyn 2033 ydyw hon, gyda chymorth Dr Heinkel. Drwy ddefnyddior pedwerydd dimensiwn teithiodd Ifan drwy amser i Gymru Rydd ddelfrydol. Nid oes dim oi le ar y wlad annibynnol hon, or bwyd ar gerddoriaeth ir ffyrdd y cosbir troseddwyr. Gyda chymorth teulu Llywarch, caiff Ifan Powell ei hebrwng drwy Gaerdydd a Chymru gyfan i weld ffermydd, chwareli a glofeydd cymunedol a llwyddiannus y wlad. Mae pob golygfa yn odidog ac nid oes brys ar Ifan i ddychwelyd, yn enwedig ar l cyfarfod Mair Llywarch. Ond nid ywr siwrnen fl i gyd pan ddaw wyneb yn wyneb ag arweinyddion cas y Crysau Porffor sydd am weld Cymru`n rhan o Brydain unwaith eto. Maent yn benderfynol y bydd Ifan yn eu cynorthwyo i wneud hynny, boed hynny oi wirfodd neu beidio.

Maen rhaid i Ifan ddychwelyd iw oes ei hun yn fuan, er y carai ef aros yn y Gymru Rydd. Wedi ychydig o amser yn l yn 1957, penderfyna ei fod eisiau dychwelyd i 2033 er gwaethaf rhybuddion Dr Heinkel am y peryglon. Wrth geisio mynd yn l ir flwyddyn 2033 am yr ail dro, pethau o chwith i Ifan. Yma gwelwn wrthgyferbyniad llwyr r Gymru ddelfrydol, heddychlon a brofodd Ifan ar ei ymweliad cyntaf. Nid Cymru ydywr wlad bellach, ond Lloegr Orllewinol. Dyma ddarlun hollol wahanol ir Gymru Rydd welodd ef gynt; cyferbyniad syn ddigon i godi ias. Maer iaith Gymraeg wedi marw ac mae Cymru erbyn hyn yn lle erchyll i fyw ynddo gyda chriwiau megis y platoons yn gwneud ir crysau porffor edrych yn heddychlon.




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